Pulmonary valve disease – causes, symptoms and treatment

Overview

The human heart is divided into four chambers. These are two atria and two ventricles. The proper functioning of the atria and ventricles depends on valves that prevent the backflow of blood into the heart. These valves act as a one-way blood inlet on one side of the ventricle and a one-way blood outlet on the other side of the ventricle. The four major valves in the human heart are the mitral valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, and pulmonary valve. Any abnormal functioning of these valves can cause problems in the human circulatory system.

About pulmonary valve disease:

The pulmonic valve makes a crucial contribution to maintaining the systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. It is a crescent-shaped valve that separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery. Thus, any disease related to the pulmonary valve interrupts blood flow from the heart to the lungs. The different diseases of the pulmonary valve are:

  • Pulmonary Atresia: It is a congenital condition in which no pulmonary valve is formed. In this condition, a firm piece of tissue restricts blood flow from the right side of the heart. So there is a shortage of blood reaching the lungs to get oxygen.
  • Pulmonary valve regurgitation: In this condition of the pulmonary valve, the flaps of the pulmonary valve cannot close properly and cause leakage of blood back into the right ventricle.
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis: In this condition of the pulmonary valve, the size of the valves decreases, which affects blood flow. It reduces blood flow from the heart to the pulmonary artery and lungs.

What Are the Symptoms of Pulmonary Valve Disease?

The symptoms of pulmonary valve disease vary depending on the severity of the obstruction in the valve. Individuals with mild pulmonary valve disease may not even have any symptoms. The symptoms may indicate problems with the normal functioning of the pulmonic valve:

  • Excessive fatigue with little physical activity
  • chestpain
  • Turbulent blood flow causes an abnormal whooshing sound that can be heard with a stethoscope. It’s called a heart murmur.
  • Shortness of breath, especially with exertion or physical activity.
  • Sudden fainting or loss of consciousness

When to see a doctor?

It is recommended to see a doctor if you feel related symptoms such as chest pain, fatigue or shortness of breath. The doctors may recommend that you have several tests to evaluate the disease.

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How can you prevent pulmonary valve disease?

It can be prevented depending on the state of your disease. Often, doctors recommend that you change your lifestyle or diet to prevent further aggravation of the disease.

What Are the Remedies for Pulmonary Valve Disease?

The possible remedies for pulmonary valve disease include surgical procedures to treat the condition.

What are the treatment options?

Cardiac surgery and procedures used to treat pulmonary valve stenosis include:

  • Balloon valfilloplasty: The doctor inserts a thin tube called a catheter with a balloon on the end into an artery, usually in the groin. The X-rays are used to guide the catheter to the narrowed valve in your heart. The doctor inflates the balloon that widens the valve opening and separates the valve flaps.
  • Replacing Pulmonary Valve: Open heart surgery or a catheter procedure can be performed to replace the pulmonary valve.

Read also about: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

Conclusion

Pulmonary valve disease can sometimes cause no symptoms at all. Can only be picked up in a health check. On the other hand, some patients may feel symptoms of these diseases. Many treatments are now available to treat patients and help them live normal lives.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Do I need surgery for pulmonary valve disease?

Depending on your condition, your doctor may recommend surgery for pulmonary valve problems.

Are pulmonary valve diseases life-threatening?

It depends on the severity. Often, pulmonary valve disease is not life-threatening, but requires immediate medical attention.

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