Urinary tract infection and its complications

Infection and microbial production in any part of the urinary tract can infect the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Most infections usually occur in the lower part of the urinary tract, i.e. bladder and urethra. The following are the various terms commonly used based on this attribute:

Inflammation/infection of the urethra (cystitis): The infection is limited to the bladder/urinary tract. This produces urination with a burning sensation, strong urge to urinate, frequency and excruciating pain.

pyelonephritis: This is a kidney infection. This is the most dangerous form of urinary tract infection (UTI) and causes symptoms such as chills or persistent fever, abdominal pain, vomiting with or without tongue twisting.

inflammation of the urethra (urethritis): This infection is associated with the urethra. Usually this pain is due to a burning sensation during urination and urine is also accompanied by a bad smell.

Some of the key terms related to urinary tract infection are as follows:

Uncommon urinary tract infection (UTI): All men, pregnant women, patients with urinary tract structural or functional abnormalities, patients using urinary catheters, renal disease such as and others due to an increase in unusual/acute urinary tract infections (UTIs). The state of inability to immunity arises.

  • Etiology: Usually e. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus
  • fungus: Candida species (a fungal infection that usually occurs on the skin or mucous membranes)
  • tuberculous(tuberculosis)

Signs And Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infection:

  • urgency – a strong urge to urinate
  • Difficulty urinating (dysuria) – a burning sensation when urinating
  • Frequent urination – frequent urination, less frequent urination
  • cloudy, cloudy/foamy and light colored urine
  • Red, bright pink or cola colored urine – a sign of blood in the urine
  • smelly urine
  • Abdominal pain – severe, bilateral pain, pelvic pain (women), chronic (perineal) pain

Risk of urinary tract infection:

  • female – sexually active, cessation of menstruation (postmenopausal)
  • pregnancy Immunocompromised conditions – diabetes mellitus, post-transplant disease, age > 60 years, patients on steroids or other immunosuppressants
  • pregnancy
  • Structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract – including urine that flows retrograde or backward from the bladder to the ureters/kidneys (vesicouric reflux), neurogenic bladder, tailgate, urinary tract stones, urethral defects, etc. it happens.
  • urinary tract equipment

complications Bacteremia in patients with unusual and complicated urinary tract infections, sepsis, multi-organ system dysfunctions, shock and acute renal failure, renal cortomedullary abscess, perinephric abscess,
Gas accumulation in the tissues (emphysematous pyelonephritis) or papillary necrosis can occur, which can be fatal.

Diagnosis: A patient’s medical history, physical examination, routine urinalysis and urine culture tests, imaging studies including ultrasound and CT scan are performed.

Treatment Process:

  • Appropriate antibiotics, antifungal agents (according to urine culture test) are used.
  • In the case of unusual UTIs (associated with septicemia, trauma, acute kidney injury), antibiotics are used.
  • Any structural or functional abnormality of the urinary tract can be corrected by appropriate available treatments such as stone removal, urethroplasty, etc.
  • In case of recurrent urinary tract infections, oral antibiotics should be taken for 3 months for complete cure.

Prevention process:

  • drink plenty of fluids, especially water
  • drink cranberry juice
  • Take care of personal hygiene and cleanliness
  • do not hold the urine for a long time
  • Avoid using diaphragms, non-lubricated spermicide condoms for birth control, dirty public restrooms, and swimming pools.

Indian patient data:

common organism in UTI

Dr. Sudeep Singh Sachdev, Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Consultant, Narayana Superspeciality Hospital, Gurugram,

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